Satan in Cyberspace

A Study of Satanism on the Internet in the 1990's

by Roald E. Kristiansen, Ph.D.

Prepared for the Lomonosov Conference in Archangelsk, Russia, November 1995
An earlier version of this article has been published in: Religion, Church, and Education in the Barents Region, ed. by Roald E. Kristiansen and Nikolay M. Terebikhin. Arkhangelsk, Russia: Pomor University Publishing House, 1997. The book contains articles by Norwegian and Russian scholars on themes dealing with theology, philosophy and history. If you want a copy, please let me know by e-mail .
If anyone had thought that Satanism was a medieval superstition that humanity left behind in the dark ages of the past, they had better think again. Satanism is very much alive and it no longer belong to the dark ages, but can be found on the international technological highways of computer networks that span the entire globe where it can be accessed by anyone with a regular home computer and a modem. In this article, I shall take a closer look at the phenomenon of Satanism as it can be encountered in the so-called "Cyberspace," i.e., in electronic text files stored on computers in various parts of the world that are accessible through the Internet by means of programs such as Mosaic, Netscape, Gopher, Telnet, etc. As the Internet is growing and changing extremely rapidly, such a study can soon become outdated. [1] Most of the files referred to in this study were accessed during the winter and spring of 1995. A search was also conducted at the end of that year to check for possible new material. (A quick and incomplete update as of August 2001 has been done for the purpose of publishing this article on the net with some current links added.)

The study has been organized as follows. There are two major organizations that present themselves on the Net: the Church of Satan and the Temple of Set. [2] Both are based in California and the latter is a further development of the former. This study will first focus on material from each of those two organizations, both in order to analyze their basic thought structures, and to clarify the relationship between their points of view. The second part of the study will discuss the criticism of Satanists as it can be found on the Internet, especially the charge raised by various groups (including neo-pagans) that Satanist ideology represents a form of fascism and even neo-nazism. The final part of this study will bring out for discussion certain issues that need to be dealt with in more detail, and will also focus on Satanism in the more general context of "Cyberspace religion" as a phenomenon in its own right.

The Feared Religion
The Church of Satan was created by Anton Szandor LaVey on April 30 (Walpurgisnacht), 1966 in San Francisco. [3] LaVey is the author of several books, which describes the philosophy of Satanism. Among the most important are, The Satanic Bible, The Satanic Rituals, and The Satanic Which. [4] The Handbook for Chaplains of the U.S. Army gives the historical roots of the Church of Satan as follows:
The Church of Satan is an eclectic body that traces its origin to many sources – classical voodoo, the Hell-Fire Club of eighteenth century England, the ritual magic of Aleister Crowley, and the Black Order of Germany in the 1920s and 1930s. It departs from its predecessors by (1) its organization into a church, and (2) the openness of its magical endeavors. [5]
The number of adherents (1978) is estimated to be between 10,000 and 20,000. The Handbook describes the Church's basic teaching as a worship of Satan as the personification of enlightenment. However, Satan is not viewed as an anthropomorphic being, but representing the forces of nature. The individual self is the highest embodiment of human life and is considered sacred as such. Satanism can be regarded as a "human potential movement", and its members are free to develop and excel in any capability whatsoever, cautioned only by rational self-interest. When performing rituals, the "minimum equipment" for worship is most likely to include a black robe, an altar, the symbol of the Baphomet (Satan), candles, a bell, a chalice, elixir (wine or some other tasting drink), a sword, a model phallus, a gong, and parchment. Magic rituals consist of three types: sex magic (includes masturbation), healing or happiness rituals, and destruction rituals (usually performed in a group setting). Live altars (by nude women) were previously favored, but is now rarely used. As far as the U.S. Army is concerned, Satanism is considered to be one among of the religions of the world that needs to be respected and dealt with in an adequate manner.

Peter H. Gilmore who has been both a priest in the Church and its media representative, has created the Cyberspace material on the Church of Satan. Gilmore gives a very precise description of contemporary Satanism as follows:

a brutal religion of elitism and social Darwinism that seeks to re-establish the reign of the able over the idiotic, of swift justice over injustice, and for a wholesale rejection of egalitarianism as a myth that has crippled the advancement of the human species for the last two thousand years. [6]
The description has religious, ethical, ideological and political connotations. Satanism is called a religion, which implies that it includes a certain belief system and a set of normative values. Its ethics emphasizes justice, but in the context of denying equal rights for all. Instead of accepting a detailed list of rules of behavior, satanists affirm the need to set up a political system of elitism, which shall promote social Darwinism as the normative ideology. One can also discern in the above maxim that Satanism is deliberately shaped as a protest against the prevailing religious and political norms of the modern Western world. Christianity is seen as the great adversary which has "crippled the advancement of the human species for the last two thousand years" due to its ideals about unconditional love and compassion. Politically, this ideal is transformed into the democratic society in which power needs to be shared and where the people itself is responsible for the selection of their political leaders by popular vote, and the politicians themselves are responsible to the people for their decisions and actions. In Satanism, these ideals are "dangerous" because they prevent the "natural" and undisturbed play of forces which ultimately will build up a society in the same way as nature builds itself through the process of natural selection in which the strongest necessarily will come out on top. Satanism can be considered as a form of social Darwinistic "religion" which seeks to promote the rights of the strongest to dominate the weaker because that is the way in which humanity will advance as a biological species and thereby take care of its role at the spearhead of natural and social evolution.
The twisting of values can be seen again and again in the material available on the Internet. e.g., in the so-called " nine satanic statements " which opens The Satanic Bible [7] written by Anton LaVey in 1969. A guilt-free self-indulgence is promoted instead of controlled abstinence, vital existence instead of spiritual dreams, vengeance instead of turning the other cheek, and kindness should only be shown towards those who deserve it. Humans need to be seen as "just another animal – sometimes better, more often worse than those that walk on all-fours". That which Christianity calls "sins" are in Satanism considered "blessings" because they lead to physical, mental, or emotional gratification. The "sins" of Satanism are therefore of a different kind than in Christianity, and are listed as stupidity, pretentiousness, solipsism, self-deceit, herd conformity, lack of perspective, forgetfulness of past orthodoxies, counterproductive pride, and lack of aesthetics. [8]

The rejection of traditional values can make social interaction a problem for Satanists. For this reason, LaVey developed the Lex Satanicus , a "law of the jungle" for Satanists, [9] which include advice such as not to give opinions unless asked, not to tell one's troubles to others unless they want to hear them, not to visit people who cannot be respected, not to make sexual advances unless given a mating signal, not to complain about anything to which one need not subject oneself, not to harm children, not to kill non-human animals except for food or when attacked, and not to bother anyone. On the "positive" side, a Satanist should help others when so requested, or destroy the one who is a nuisance, and acknowledge the power of magic in so far as it works to one's benefit.

From the above description, it is obvious that the satanic code of behavior is based on an extreme social Darwinist ideology, and expressed in a religious language that deliberately seeks to contradict Judeo-Christian ideals regarding love, compassion, and altruism. Actually, the very word "Satanism" is used primarily as a signifier to express the anti-Christian code of ethics, not as an indicator that Devil worship is at the heart of Satanist activity. Gilmore puts it clearly:

there are no elements of Devil worship in the Church of Satan. Such practices are looked upon as being Christian heresies [...] Satanists do not believe in the supernatural, in either God or the Devil. To the Satanist, he is his own God. Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force that permeates all of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Thus Satan is not a conscious entity to be worshipped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at will. [10]
Satanism is best conceived as a radical form of atheistic social Darwinism which views Christianity as its primary enemy and only in that context does the word "Satanism" makes sense. The point is not to experience some kind of super-normal unity with some kind of personal force of evil, but to develop the human abilities to use their natural power to such an extent that it transforms one's life and enables one to succeed in the personal struggle for survival. The development of these abilities is the reason for engaging in ritual and magical practices. Ritual and magic ("Magick") are seen as techniques for influencing the outcome of human events to one's desired ends, and the awareness of one's abilities and what is possible to achieve is regarded as the hallmark of successful Satanic magicians. [11]
Referring to Satanism as a protest against "traditional" values can be somewhat misleading. It is correct in so far as the "traditional" values refer to ethical ideals specifically grounded in the Christian religion. At the same time Satanism affirms "traditional" values in so far as they help the individual to master their own lives and to achieve greatness in practical living. The point is that each individual should develop his or her natural talent for the sake of survival. If a person does not succeed, then that person should be left alone to perish. The same rule applies on the social level. Societies, cultures or nations that cannot handle themselves, should take the consequences of this inability. From the perspective of Satanism as the most consistent form of social Darwinism, there ought to be a reduction of the world's population as the weak are allowed to disappear:
Thus has nature always acted to cleanse and strengthen her children. This is harsh, but that is the way of the world. We embrace reality and do not try to transform it into some utopia that is contrary to the very fabric of existence. [12]
The practical application of this ideology is the complete cessation of the welfare system and an end to all programs that seek to help the poor and disadvantaged. Instead, one should develop new programs to award gifted individuals in all fields to pursue their goals to their utmost ability. This also includes developing eugenics and to enrich the gene pool from which human species can grow. Gilmore looks forward to the time when one can choose one's offspring at will. In the meantime, Satanists need to mate the best specimens available and the Church of Satan therefore encourages those that know that they are "defective" to refrain from reproducing. In the case of criminals, the Church of Satan advocates the institution of an elite police force ("an American Schutzstaffel") who will deal with such persons. Social rules should be established to secure maximum freedom for individuals to interact, and those who disobey those rules need to be dealt with in an adequate manner, e.g. as forced labor to do whatever work society deems necessary.
The Church of Satan has developed a plan to move society in the desired direction. [13] The plan includes (1) the advocating of general recognition and acceptance of a stratified society where the best are allowed to succeed and the weak are allowed to perish, (2) the enforcement of strict taxation of all churches and religious institutions, (3) the re-establishment of Lex Talionis ("do unto others as they do onto you") without mercy in which the punishment fit in kind and degree the crime, (4) the promotion of a new industry which shall seek to develop artificial humanoids to satisfy human demands for labor and the satisfaction of one's dreams, and (5) the construction of technological total environments as "pleasure domes" and places of amusement and delight for people. Life is meant to be enjoyed, and any means that help fulfill such enjoyment are to be pursued by science and technology.

Satanists come in different kinds, and there are no specific rules for what it means to be a Satanist. There is nevertheless one unifying theme in the sense that all Satanists should have, or at least seek to develop, the virtues of antinomianism, self-reliance, rebellion and adversarialism. [14] There is no absolute moral code to be followed and the main emphasis is on the individual's right to determine with is good and bad. Many Satanists find ritual activity to be of great value and pursues it in groups or in a solitary manner. Either path is acceptable to the Church of Satan. Ritual celebrations are inventions that do not have any meaning in themselves, but can have practical value in so far as they help participants to greater insight into themselves and how to live in the world. It is therefore no surprise to learn that the greatest "Satanic holiday" is one's own birthday. [15] There is no higher god than oneself, and one should therefore worship accordingly.

A Satanist should not actively seek to win adherents (proselytize), but willingly share their philosophy only in so far as they are asked to do so. The person who wishes to become a follower of Satan can become a Registered Member of the Church of Satan by paying a one-time fee of US$ 100. By filling out a questionnaire, one can be reviewed for further involvement in special interest groups of all persuasions who work on fulfilling their "Satanic destiny." [16] International Satanic organizations recommended by The Church of Satan are The Order of the Left Hand Path (European and New Zealand), The Order of Nine Angels (England), and The Fraternity of Baelder (England). [17]

Setian Philosophy
The Temple of Set, named after the Egyptian god of the night, Set, [18] was established in 1975 after Anton LaVey had offended many [19] of its members by turning The Church of Satan into a tool for his personal expression and financial income. [20] In its place the Temple of  Set was set up under the leadership of High Priest Michael Aquino. [21] The Temple was incorporated in California as a non-profit church in 1975 and received both state and federal recognition and tax exemption. Members consider themselves the sole "Satanic" religious institution possessing these legal credentials.

The history of the Temple of Set is explained in detail in a document called "The General Information and Admissions Policies Letter". [22] The Temple traces its origin to the dawn of civilization where the human race for the first time developed a sense of self-consciousness that places humanity apart from and above all other known forms of life. Humankind reacted to this development in two ways. Some were afraid of the expressions of self-consciousness and sought to promote the view that humankind might return to an Eden-like "state of nature" in which one did not have to take responsibility for decisions and actions because a high-god demanded absolute submission and loyalty. Others welcomed self-consciousness and regarded it as a way to oppose and dominate the forces of nature by exercising human "will to power." Whereas the Judeo-Christian tradition has followed the former path, the Egyptian and Greek traditions, especially the mystery and occult religions, chose the latter path. The adherents of the Temple of Set see themselves as continuing the latter alternative.

The name "Set" is etymologically linked with the Hebrew word, Satan, and in the Temple philosophy the two are considered the same in the sense of being symbols for the Giver of ultimate Self-Awareness. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, Satan has been regarded as the personification of everything God was not, i.e., totally evil. Setians reject this view of Satan/Set as a Christian heresy. "Set" rather stands for the development of the human capacity for self-consciousness and will to power. According to Setian philosophy, Christian propaganda throughout history has fought against Setians by setting up a smoke screen of evil satanic cults and witchcraft in order to terrorize their followers into docile obedience and to eliminate those who could not be threatened. Due to the secularization of the Western world, the way was gradually cleared to accepting an alternative spirituality. From Freemasonry a ceremonial and magical offshoot came in the form of Rosicrucianism, and then in the famous Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (G.'.D.'.) from which  Aleister Crowley (1875-1947) developed his own Order of the Astrum Argenteum (A.'.A.'.). Crowley is considered a "grandfather" of satanic philosophy because he fused the ceremonial magic with a strong emphasis on the possibility of attaining the highest level of self-consciousness, and integrated this with Masonic/sexual practices of Germany's Order of Oriental Templars (O.T.O.). (here is the U.S. site of O.T.O. )

The establishing of the Church of Satan in 1966 marks the birth of Satanism as a religion in its own right. From its headquarters in San Francisco it branched out across the United States and Canada with local "Grottos " headed by ordained Satanic priests (the Priesthood of Mendes). [23] The total membership in the early 70s was about 250 individuals. [24] Its ideology was pragmatic and utilitarian, primarily oriented to rational self-interest, indulgence, and a glorification of the carnal and material. It did not concern itself much with the mystical and philosophical aspects of Satanism. In its further development this lack of depth caused serious problems as the satanic religion, according to the views propagated by the Temple of Set, proposes to raise the individual to personal godhood, free from enslavement to other powers. Since this is not only a question of power, but also of ethics, morality, and psychological maturity, the utilitarian attitude of the Church of Satan was insufficient to the new movement, and so it degenerated into a popular commercialized version of Satanism for its leader's self-propagation, and so the Temple of Set was set up as a more viable tool to promote a more religious and philosophical form of Satanism.

The Temple of Set defines "Satanism" as:

the belief in the existence of Satan as a sentient being or spirit in the universe, and the worship of Satan and obedience to his perceived principles, standards, and goals. As Satan is defined as a metaphysical being – Devil or Archangel, such belief in him constitutes a religion rather than a rational philosophy or an indoctrinated ideology. [25]
A Satanist is then one who believes in Satan, just as a Christian believes in Jesus Christ, a Buddhist believes in Buddha, and a Muslim believes in Mohammed. If the existence of Satan is denied, then such a person is an atheist, not a Satanist. This "religious approach" to Satanism made it natural, especially in its early years (1966-1975) to explore the so-called Left-Hand Path from within the Judeo-Christian terminology as a reversion of certain Christian ideals. Because the theistic religions created their imagery of "Satan" as the ultimate evil, Satanists emphasized such attributes as total independence, moral antinomianism, ceremonial artistry, and intellectual development. The Setians regard this form of Satanism as only a step along the way, a pedagogical means to free oneself from the entire cage of Judeo-Christian reference-points in order to enter a much larger universe of free thought and ideas. The goal is to develop a completely non-Christianized, positive "high Satanism" that can stand by itself as a viable alternative for anyone interested.

Until the 1980s, society at large had few problems with the development of Satanism as exploration and innovation were tolerated and encouraged in society. Generally, religion was seen as something quaint and obsolete, and so even Satanism was not considered a threat to anyone. Since then, however, a new wave of conservatism and intolerance has set in. New religious groups have become the victims of hate-propaganda and Satanism in particular have been accused of a variety of crimes: human and animal sacrifice, cannibalism, kidnapping, sexual abuse, murder, etc. [26] Much energy has therefore been diverted into answering accusations and defending one's right to pursue the Satanic path for its own sake. Complicating the picture has been groups of alienated youth and antisocial elements who have had the desire to offend society through music or criminal activity. The Temple of Set rejects such attempts to turn Satanism's image into nothing more than anti-Christian devil worship and emphasizes that to become a Setian is not something for unstable, immature, or otherwise emotionally or intellectually weak-minded people. The priority task of the Temple is not to be a "savior of the masses," but rather to encourage and help suitable individuals to grasp and attain their own divinity, to make them "philosopher-kings" who are able to move beyond the ordinary views of the world. The Temple therefore affirms the right to determine on its own who are "worthy" of membership and who are not.

According to M. Aquino, Satanism is based on two principles: (1) that the individual human being is a free agent who stands apart from the non-conscious forces of nature; and (2) that this fact is so frightening to most people that they either have "demonized" it or suppressed its influence on themselves. [27] Consequently, a Satanist must not only exercise and enjoy the first principle, but also deal with the fear and hatred generated by those who do not comprehend its meaning. The true Setian must be an adept in Black Magic [28] who desires to live, to experience and to continue to be indefinitely. Secondly, the true Setian is the one who believes that the psychic consciousness can evolve towards its own divinity through deliberate exercise of intelligence and will. This is seen as a process of becoming or coming into being as expounded by Plato and explained by Nietzsche. Worship as conducted in the Temple of Set is the affirmation of individualism. This is not to be taken as mere indulgence in all the desires of body and ego (as often was done in the Church of Satan). Individualism may be called a goal in itself, but it must also be interpreted as a means to achieve a "higher self" as expounded by Aleister Crowley in his earlier philosophy. This process is called Xeper (pr. "Kheffer"; the Egyptian hieroglyphic term for "becoming") and signifies the "Coming Into Being as an alert, oriented, and balanced Magician capable of creating change in accord with Will." [29] In the philosophy of the Temple, life is viewed as a process in which the psyche can become aware of itself and then reach out towards the limitlessness of its conscious existence. There are several methods to obtain the kind of self-awareness that characterizes the higher self, and the Temple has no ultimate answer as to how a person should develop one's higher self. The individual must choose the path for him- or herself. The task of the Temple is simply to set up a conducive atmosphere and a proper forum (so-called "Pylons") in which such goals can be pursued and communicated. Based on experience, however, the Temple recommends three methods as particularly useful: Socratic reductionism (the act of questioning and testing beliefs to eliminate falsehood), the use of correct logic (an eclectic and creative synthesis of ideas from various sources to understand the relation between humans and the universe), and noetic intuition (the direct knowledge of one's own deity and the use of Black Magic). [30]

The Temple of Set is led by the Council of Nine, which determines long-term policies and goals, and appoints both the High Priest of Set and the Executive Director. There are six degrees (I* - VI*) of initiation for members (Setian I*, Adepts II*, Priests III*, Magisters IV*, Magi V*, Ipsissimi VI*) along with various Orders, each supervised by a IV*+ initiate as the Grand Master. [31] An Order is a group of members who emphasize special interests of a historic, philosophical, geographic or psychological kind within the total belief system of the Temple, and may be formalized by special introductory and ritual procedures. The Grand Master exercises complete authority over the specific Order, and the Master is only subject to review by the High Priest of Set. An initiate may belong to one Order only. The Temple have about one dozen Orders which include the Order of the Trapezoid, [32] the Order of the Scarab, the Order of the Vampyre, the Order of Shuti, and the Order of Leviathan. [33] Active work in the Orders are usually performed by II* and IV* initiates. The V* initiates are the adepts who have mastered the art of Black Magic, and it marks the top rank normally maintained by Temple members. Priests are responsible for the integrity of the Temple as a whole and have the authority to evaluate initiates' competence and to expel individuals when necessary.

Individuals admitted to the Temple are given a personal copy of the Crystal Tablet of Set , which contain material on Black Magic, the philosophy of magic, a list of activities and goals for novices, inter-member communication, information about the Temple's various orders, a list of all current Temple officials, a reading list, [34] and a variety of literature written by Michael Aquino. [35] The novice has two years to qualify as an adept. The evaluation is based on personal recognition by an already adept person, who assesses the person's psychological and spiritual maturity and capability to use magic in order to obtain desired goals. If the evaluation is negative, the person's affiliation is cancelled. Persons who are approved are given a red medallion and is now free to affiliate with an Order of the Temple and to pursue specialized studies according to personal choice. One can also seek initiation into higher degrees. This depends on personal growth and the recognition of such growth from other members. The Temple has a computer database and a bulletin-board system ("Glinda"), which serves as a repository for an electronic library of documents. Some of these have been downloaded and archived on various Internet and FTN sites along with other material about the Temple of Set. [36]

Persons who wish to join the Temple of Set, can do so either by being sponsored by someone already a member of the Temple, in which case membership approval is automatic, or, one can apply to the Executive Director, stating one's personal background and reason for seeking entrance to the Temple. If the statement does not reveal any criminal or unethical intent, the person is admitted and requested to pay the admission fee (about US$ 60 with an annual renewal fee for all initiates of US$ 50). Members must be over 18 years of age. There is no program for children as it is the Temple's view that youthful years should be a time of exclusively rational training and education, giving them a sound basis for choosing whatever philosophy or faith they want.

— — — — —

The relationship between the Church of Satan and the Temple of Set is a rather strained one. One source says, "there has been war of words raging between The Temple of Set and the Church of Satan for the past twenty years." [37] Nevertheless, Michael Aquino often refers to Anton LaVey with a dues sense of respect, but at the same time criticizes LaVey strongly for having compromised Satanism and the Church. Ideologically, the Temple of Set (hereafter ToS) views the Church (of Satan, hereafter CoS) as only a temporary setup, an Aeon of Satan which was preceded by the Aeon of HarWer led by Alistair Crowley, and was followed by the Aeon of Set led by Aquino himself. [38] From the perspective of ToS, the CoS is stuck in a somewhat reactionary form of Christian "debunking" by keeping the Judeo-Christian terminology in a reversed form. Instead, the ToS advocates liberation from this terminology and thought patterns, and so uses the Egyptian mythology as a means of overcoming the Judeo-Christian heritage.

The main difference between CoS and Tos, however, is to be found in their anthropology. The CoS bases their religion on the view that humans are real animals like any other animal, "a being of carnality" where the "key to happiness is the acceptance of human nature as it is." [39] Satanists of the CoS variety accept indulgence of their carnal nature as their key word (their Xeper, in ToS terminology). Carnal pleasure in the present is the actual goal of CoS adherents, and it is to this end that Satanic Magic is applied as a way of "venting" emotional frustrations. The ultimate goal of CoS is the setting up of a total system of social Darwinism in which the stronger take control of their own destiny and uses the Lex Talionis as a principle of how to deal with adversaries. Weak elements are determined according to their performance and intelligence and will ultimately have to be eliminated for the sake of superior beings.

The ToS adherents rejects this "reductionist" view of humans as mere animals and advocates the view that humans are beings who stands apart and above nature by virtue of their self-awareness. The point is precisely to develop the individual's self-awareness further by opposing and conquering the forces of nature by exercising human will to power, and Temple is relatively indifferent with regard to the social and political implications of this rise in the person's self-awareness. Whereas the CoS is primarily inspired by a naturalistic philosophy of Darwinian origin in which the strongest will survive, the ToS is inspired by the Nietzschean ideal of the Superman who controls his or her destiny through one's personal will. Both agree in their vision of the Super-human, but they disagree as to the means of how to achieve this goal. The CoS pursues the goal in terms of "indulging" (affirming) humanity's carnal nature, while the ToS pursues the goal through philosophy and mysticism. Both use magic and ritual for their purposes, but the form and content of those rituals are then shaped according to how they envision their paths. CoS rituals emphasize the ventilation of emotional frustration and the satisfaction of carnal desires, whereas the ToS emphasizes the self's symbolic participation in a higher reality through ceremonial magic. Both groups regards "Satan" as a powerful symbol of rejection and as a means to affirm that human desires and exercise of will is a positive element of human behavior, but they differ in the attribution of significance to this symbol. For the CoS adherent, "Satan" is the primary symbol of identity, while for the ToS adherent, "Satan" is just one among several symbols and one which actually have to be transcended in order to see the higher truth. Both groups affirm the need to adhere to society's general norms and laws, at least when living among other people who do not understand their views and sympathies. They strongly reject accusations against them as perpetrators of criminal activity and regard those who actually have performed cruel and criminal acts (murder, sacrifices, kidnapping, child abuse, etc.) as not real Satanists, but as mere teen age "dabblers" who "adopt satanic trappings for a brief period of time, usually for entertainment rather than serious purposes." [40] Such groups might use criminal behavior to attract attention and to create a name for themselves, but they are not accepted by neither CoS or ToS as true (or "Religious") Satanists. CoS or ToS Satanists are not, by virtue of calling themselves Satanists, criminal or even dangerous persons in a legal sense. This view is corroborated by an extensive report on the alleged "ritual" child abuse by satanic groups. Having investigated allegations of Satanic crime for eleven years, Kenneth V. Lanning, supervisory special agent of the Behavioral Science Unit of the FBI Academy in Virginia, concludes that, "There is little or no evidence for the portion of their allegations that deals with large-scale baby breeding, human sacrifice, and organized satanic conspiracies." This does not mean that ritual crimes do not occur, but that such acts are not to be understood as a result of organized Satanic activity, but rather as crimes performed by individuals who are using the facade of Satanism to control their victims and further their criminal behavior. Such persons should be regarded as criminals, not as Satanists. It is, of course, possible that some Satanists are criminals, just as one can find criminals within any specific group in contemporary society. In so far as there is a problem with regard to Satanism, the core of the problem is not crime, but ideology, and it is to this issue that we now shall turn our attention.

Satanism and fascism
On November 11, 1990, Tim Maroney posted a message on The Northern Lights BBS under the title, "The Nazi Trapezoid" about some unsettling questions concerning Aquino's organization:

It harbors a subgroup, the Order of the Trapezoid, which is dedicated to Nazi occultism. Aquino is known to have participated in black magical rituals at Wewelsburg Castle, set up as a place of occult working for the SS by Heinrich Himmler. Aquino counts Nazi occultism as one of his chief interests, and the heraldry and symbolism of the SS is one of his favorite topics of discussion. These facts would seem to indicate, at least on the face of them, that Aquino is sympathetic to Nazism. [41]
Maroney complains that Aquino refuses to answer questions about his Nazi relations. He does not want to deal with matters on the ethical quality of Nazism or even the reality of the Holocaust. In Aquino's written statements to initiates into the Order of the Trapezoid, he speaks positively about the dynamism and life-worship which was endorsed by Nazi Germany "to a world-shaking degree of success." The only problem with Nazism seems to be that the Third Reich's dynamism got out of hand. Instead of creating a "truly evolutionary synthesis of the most sublime concepts of Hegel and Nietzsche," dynamism and life-worship became perverted into a hatred of other groups and nations and led to irrational destructive foreign invasions.

Aquino's evasion of the issue is by Maroney connected with the fact that Aquino is a military intelligence officer by profession who knows how to handle covert actions. The fact that he does not answer the question in itself indicates that the issue is a real one and that he is actually involved. Furthermore, a positive attitude towards nazism is hinted to in his remarks on certain books in the ToS reading list. In reference to Mein Kampf by Hitler, Aquino recommends the reader to "look for the discussions concerning the selection of leaders, control of the masses, and the justification for human social organization. You may be surprised at what you find." [42] About the book, Hitler's Secret Conversations 1941-1944 by H. R. Trevor-Roper (ed.), Aquino concludes that this is "an impressive look into the mind of an individual whom the postwar world has been conditioned to dismiss as a crude, criminal, and unintrospective thug." He also gives credit to books that extol the history of the European race "which would have done credit to Hitler and Rosenberg." When reviewing the books in the reading list related to "Fascism, Totalitarianism, and Magic," Maroney finds that a majority of the books are pro-nazi in content and that Aquino obviously thinks highly of Hitler and Rosenberg, that he presents little criticism of Nazi ideology, and he unambiguously endorses the study and practice of Nazi occultism.

A representatives of ToS, Ammond Shadowcraft, responded to these charges by refering to the fact that the ToS cannot be fascist nor racist because many of the Temple leaders are of minority descent (black, Jewish, Hispanic, etc.). He does not deal with the accusations as such except to refer to M. Aquino's doctoral degree in political science, which is taken as a reassurance that the reading list gives "a complete view of this very emotional subject." [43] The discussion continued on various Internet newsgroups and to many occultists and neo-pagans the ToS seemed to a group of neo-fascist and/or Nazi sympathizers.

A more substantial rebuttal was a given by a member of ToS (no author listed) who summed up the discussion and gave specific answers to the more important accusations. [44] The author begins by a disclaimer as s/he reminds the reader that the ToS as an organization has no opinion or point of view of its own concerning fascism because this is outside the Temple's realm of concern. Any opinion, including that of the author, is a personal one.

The basic question to be answered is, "Is the ToS a fascist organization headed by a Nazi sympathizer?" On the basis of dictionary definitions of Nazism and fascism, the author states an emphatic No! for the following reasons: (1) Aquino disagrees with Nazi ideology of the totalitarian principle of government. As evidence, it is pointed to the organization of the Temple which conforms to standard democratic principles. (2) Aquino disagrees with the Nazi ideology of the state control of all industry. The evidence is found in the Temple's ideal of Black Magicians who should be able to successfully make their own way in a capitalist society. (3) Aquino disagrees with Nazi ideology of the predominance of gorups assumed to be racially superior. The evidence is that people of various races are treated according to the individual capabilities, not according to race. (4) Aquino disagrees with Nazi ideology of the supremacy of the Leader ( Führer). According to Setian philosophy, the only entity to be worshiped is one's own higher Self, not any other's self.

The thrust of the argument against fascism is that the ToS as an organization and Aquino as its leader discard the basic fundamentals of Nazi social and political ideals. There is, however, a genuine interest in Nazism in the ToS, and particularly among the Trapezoid Order, but this interest concerns itself only with two issues: the philosophy of Nazi occultism and how the Nazis obtained so much power so rapidly. It is this limited interest, which is the reason why the reading list includes several pro-Nazi works, not as a means to pursue their political ideals, but to get a clearer grasp of their occult ideas and practices. [45] Third Reich occultism is rooted in the philosophy of German Romanticism, which advocated individualism, dynamism, and the worship of life in all its diversity. The Nazi development is seen as an aberration and deviation from these original ideals in which political goals and social ideals got out of hand in the irrational attempt to conquer and dominate other nations and peoples. The positive aspect of Nazism, that which enabled it to gain power so quickly, was at the same time responsible for its demise and recourse to the use of war as the irrational means to conquer its opponents and enemies.

Is the Order of the Trapezoid (O.Tr.) oriented towards promoting fascist ideology and ideals? Clearly not, says the author, as the rules of the Order makes quite clear:

The O.Tr. is an Order of knighthood characterized by strict personal honor and faithfulness to the quest for the Grail. The Order is a knighthood in that its members are pledged to the traditional chivalric virtues as appropriate to each situation encountered. By honor is meant a sense of justice, ethics, and responsibility prior to personal comfort, convenience, or advantage. This honor is known by one's faithfulness to the Quest of the Grail, which is the self, soul, or psyche made perfect through conscious refinement and exercise of the Will. Attainment of the Grail results in transformation of the individual into a state of dynamic existence energized by the psyche, not by the physical body derived from the objective universe. Hence the O.Tr. is the gate to psycho-centric immortality beyond physical death. [46]
Such ideals are not conducive to the setting up of Nazi structures or promoting fascist ideas. The Order promotes the growth of the individual self-awareness that includes the application of ethical norms when exercising one's Will to power. [47] The author therefore concludes that there is nothing in the Temple of Set that can be taken as representative of Nazi ideology or fascist policies. All there is to it, is that Setians should be aware of and understand the philosophy and practice of Black Magic and occult rituals during the Third Reich as a late development from German Romanticism and as a source of inspiration for their own personal development.
It might very well be the case that this is all there is to it, but then one is faced with an entirely different problem. The ToS (and to a certain extent also CoS) emphasis on the development of the individual's self-awareness and its uninhibited philosophy of individualism make its adherents insensitive and even indifferent to the social and political implications of their philosophical ideals. Satanism has developed within a social vacuum where only the private and individual concerns have been dealt with. The laws of society are adhered to, not because there is any meaning to social and political life as such , but because of convenience. The whole point in most Satanists' minds, are the rebellion against traditional religions, ideologies and morality. As stated in the New Zealand Satanist journal, The Watcher,
Satan and the Watchers are thus symbols of rebellion against tyrannical god and moral concepts, which stifle human ascent. We take our stand on the side of rebellion leading to liberation from slave religions, moralities and ideologies, the chief one being in the West at this time Judaeo-Christianity, with Marxism and the Puritan money ethic (ideological liberalism) being excrescences of this heritage. [48]
It is very easy to criticize Satanism for their lack of ethical norms, but the problem with such criticism is that it merely proves the point which Satanists want to make: that traditional morality is a remnant of the Judeo-Christian tradition that needs to be done away with. Ethics and morality is simply not a concern for Satanists of any "denomination," and so to charge Satanists for their lack of moral standing is at best a waste of time.

A more fundamental and constructive approach to come to terms with Satanists on their own home field, is to focus on the issue which is at the heart of their own thinking, namely, anthropology, and in particular the social aspects of their anthropology. If there is any "danger" in Satanism, it is in their view of human beings and especially in the social and political consequences of their anthropological views. Both CoS and ToS represent extreme forms of individualism in which the social and political reality of life is obscured by the desire to develop the individual's minds strictly within its own personal context. With regard to the CoS, the "danger" becomes acute due to this group's embrace of social-Darwinist ideals in which they envision a society that has rejected the principle of equality among persons, discarded all social security systems, and envisages the introduction of an elite police force to secure a strict enforcement of the Lex Talionis . But the CoS and ToS do not differ in any fundamental way on this issue. I think that it is possible to say that what the CoS states explicitly as their social and political ideals, are actually the implicit consequences of the Setian philosophy as it might be applied on the social arena. In so far as Satanism can be called a "human potential movement," it is indeed necessary to clarify what kind of anthropology that allows one to set up such ethical standards that can be expressed in terms of the "do what thou wilst" principle, and the social and political implications of such a philosophy. If this is not done, then the movement's adherents might soon find themselves in exactly the same position as the Nazi sympathizers, i.e., the irrationalism of the dynamic and life-affirming movement will ultimately take over and create a situation in which political and social goals will be determined and pursued without regard for their consequences for other people(s). It is not possible to work out a philosophy, a religion or a system of any kind, without clarifying one's anthropology and doing it apart from the social and political context in which the person envisages one's ideals to be actualized. To assume that this is possible, and to isolate oneself as a person – often literally by disguising one's identity to others as it is done in the rituals of their Temples and Churches – is the gravest mistake and self-deception by Satanists of any kind.

So what kind of anthropology do we find among adherents of the Satanist persuasion? In order to answer this question, one has to distinguish clearly between the views of CoS and ToS respectively. As for the CoS, one can find their views very clearly represented in the above-mentioned journal, The Watcher. [49] In an article in Issue # 2 (April-June 1990 CE) called "Satanism and Morality", the main view is that the human being should be considered an animal. To be an animal means that the purpose of life is to follow one's instinct in order to satisfy one's desires. This view conforms to the 8th Satanic Statement of LaVey: "Satan represents all of the so-called sins, as they all lead to physical, mental, or emotional gratification." However, the gratification of primary drives and stimulus motives does not mean giving up self-control and will. There is at least one way in which the human being differs from the animal, and that is that a human being has the capability of exercising self-control and will. But the Satanist's point is that this capability should be exercised to support one's "animalhood" by seeking the best possible way of attaining physical, mental, and emotional gratification. This means that a human being need to consider the available means of obtaining gratification and to choose the way according to the rules of "Satanic morality" which can be summarized in three words: pride, wisdom and individuality. Pride means not conforming to the ideals of the masses, but to one's own desires for gratification; wisdom means to be able to control one's destiny through knowledge and power; individuality means the strength of the body, mind and will which allows one to stand above common people and their herd mentality. Consequently, to be a human being, means to exercise one's capabilities to the utmost for the sake of satisfaction of bodily, mental and emotional desires. The person who actualizes this ideal has reached "the highest embodiment of life."

From the ToS perspective, the human being is not understood as essentially different, but there is nevertheless a significant shift in emphasis. Whereas the CoS puts the main emphasis on carnal aspect (the mental and emotional aspects are clearly subordinated to the primary drives of the body), the ToS puts its main emphasis on the mental aspect in which the "highest" is understood as obtaining the correct knowledge which enables one to take control of one's life and destiny. The difference between the CoS and ToS anthropology thus follows a very old line of conflict within anthropology itself, namely, the conflict between body and mind. Are humans best perceived in terms of the body or in terms of the mind? The CoS and ToS adherents come down on different sides when answering this question.

The practical results of their answers, however, make little difference because the answer is kept strictly within the individual's personal horizon of meaning. Satisfaction and gratification is exclusively for the sake of the individual, and the social and political implications are only given attention in so far as they support the individual's interests. And even more, it is not just any individual that is the object of concern here, but the strongest among all human beings. The Satanists' anthropology is of an extremely hierarchical nature. Humans are divided into categories according to their physical, mental and emotional strength. Those with superior strength in these areas are more valueable than those with lesser strength, and the ultimate ideal is to get rid of the lesser individuals as they disturb the exercise of the will of stronger persons. It is in this sense that the charge of fascism still makes sense. The link to fascism and to Nazi ideology is found in their anthropology, which advocates the rights of the stronger because they are the superior beings. The practical result of this anthropology is identical with Nazi social and political ideologies, which sought to eradicate peoples considered to be of lesser value (Jews, gypsies, blacks, homosexuals, etc.). Satanists can only escape this conclusion by evading a closer examination of their anthropology and disregarding the application of their ideals in a social and political context. This is the main danger of Satanism today – but that is also precisely the reason why a dialogue is needed with the Satanists, at least with those of a more serious persuasion (not the "dabblers"). Taking into consideration that Satanic organizations have existed for the past 30 years, they need to be taken seriously also among those who belong to the "Right Hand Path" in order to dispel misunderstandings and to obtain a clearer understanding of their fundamental presuppositions and ideological concerns. Unfounded attacks and misrepresentations based on a lack of knowledge about Satanism hardly cause anything else than further radicalization and self-isolation among Satanist adherents which in its turn give rise to an increasing gap between the alienation between Satanic groups and the rest of society.

Selected books on Satanism:

Aiken, Satanism: Sacrilege-silly or Serious? USA: Amer Focus Pub Co, 1989.

Michael Aquino, The History of the Church of Satan. (no publ. info.). [Available through the Temple of Set.]

Geoffry Ashe, Do What You Will. (no pub. info.). [History and philosophy of Satanic groups and the "Hellfire Clubs".]

Blanche Barton, The Secret Life of a Satanist. USA: Mondo Press, 1990. [Basic biography of Anton LaVey, and a basic guide to Satanic philosophy.]

----------, The Church of Satan. USA: Hell's Kitchen Prod, n.d. [Authorized by Church of Satan.]

Wade Baskin, Satanism: A Guide to the Awesome Power of Satan. Citadel press, 1988.

Hakim Bey, TAZ (Temporary Autnomous Zone. USA: Autonomedia, 1991. [The manifesto of an emerging anarchic cyber-culture, and a manual for freedom in the coming dark age.]

Valentin Boss, Milton and the Rise of Russian Satanism. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1991.

Richard Cavendish, The Black Arts. USA: Perigee Books, 1967. [Introduction to magic, demonology, and classical views of Satanism.]

The Church of All Worlds, Witchcraft, Satanism & Occult Crime: Who's Who & What's What, A Reference Manual for the Professional Investigator. USA: Phoenix Pub Co, 1994.

The Church of Satan, The Black Flame. Journal of the Church of Satan.

The Committee for the Scientific Examination of Religion, Satanism In America. (no pub. info.)

Flo Conway & Jim Siegelman, Snapping; America's Epidemic of Sudden Personality Change. (no pub. info.) [Information theory used to study sudden personality change as it accurs in religious cults and the "Born-Again" phenomenon.]

John W. Decamp, The Franklin Cover-up: Child abuse, Satanism, and Murder in Nebraska. USA: A.W.T. Inc., 1992.

Neil Forsyth, The Old Enemy . Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1987. [History of Satan.]

Bruce Frederickson, How to respond to Satanism. USA: Concordia Pub House, 1988.

Karl R.H. Frick, Satan und die Satanisten: Ideengeschichtliche Untersuchungen zur Herkunft der Komplexen Gestalt "Luzifer/Satan/Teufel", ihrer Weiblichen Entsprechungen und ihrer Anhngerschaft. 3 vols. Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1982-1988.

Jeff Godwin, Dancing with Demons: The Music's Real Master. Chino, CA: Chick Publ, 1988.

Friedrich-Wilhelm Haack, Anmerkungen zum Satanismus. München: Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Religions- und Weltanschauungsfragen, 1991.

George Hay, ed., The Necronomicon . (no publ., 1977). Also The Necronomicon [by "the Mad Arab"]. Avon Books, 1978. [A popular fictional book of rituals.]

Robert D. Hicks, In Pursuit of Satan. USA: Prometheus Books, n.d.

Jerry Johnston, Edge of Evil: the Rise of Satanism in North America. USA: Word Books, 1989.

Larry Kahaner, Cults that kill: Probing the Underworld of Occult Crime. New York: Warner Books, 1988.

Bob Larson, Satanism: the Seduction of America's Youth. Nelson Thomas Inc, 1989.

Anton LaVey, The Satanic Bible. USA: Avon Books 1969. [Presents the Satanic views and doctrines of the Church of Satan.]

----------, The Compleat Witch. USA: Lancer Books, 1971.

----------, The Satanic Rituals. USA: Avon Books, 1972.

Kevin Logan, Satanism and the Occult. England: Kingsway Pub, 1994.

Arthur Lyons, The Second Coming. 1970. (A history of Satanism through the Middle Ages and the modern era.)

----------, Satan Wants You. Mysterious Press (Warner), 1988. [Overview of Satanism.)

Robert S. Mayer, Satan's Children: Shocking True Accounts of Satanism, Abuse, and Multiple Personality . USA: Avon Books, 1992.

Joyce Mercer, Behind the Mask of Adolescent Satanism. USA: Fairview Press, 1991.

Jules Michelet, A.R. Allinson, transl., Satanism and Witchcraft: The Classical Study of Medieval Superstition . USA: Citadel Press, 1992.

Anthony Moriarty, The Psychology of Adolescent Satanism: A Guide for Parents, Counselors, Clergy and Teachers .USA: Praeger Pub, 1992.

Allen J. Ottens & Rick A. Myer, Coping with Satanism. USA: Rosen Publ. Group, 1993.

John Parker, At the Heart of Darkness: Witchcraft, Black Magic and Satanism Today. England: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1993.

Bob Passantino, Satanism . New Zealand: Harper & Collins, 1995.

Phil Phillips, Halloween and Satanism. USA: Starburst Pub, 1987.

Lyle J. Rapacki, Satanism: the Not so New Problem. USA: Crossroads Ministries, 1990.

James T. Richardson, Joel Best, & David G. Gromley, eds., The Satanism Scare. New York: A. de Gruiter, 1991.

Maximillian Rudwin, The Devil in Legend and Literature. USA: Open Court Press, 1931. [On and pertaining to Christian ideas about Satanism.]

Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Prince of Darkness. USA: Cornell Univ. Press, 1988. [Scholarly work on the history of Satan.]

David K. Sakheim & Susan E. Devine, Out of Darkness: Exploring Satanism and Ritual Abuse. USA: Lexington Books, 1992, reprint: Simon and Schuster, 1994.

William Argent, Battle for the Mind. USA: Harper & Row, 1957.

Emil Schneweis, Angels and Demons According to Lactantius. USA: Ams Press, 1944.

Jeffrey J. Setton, Satanism: Is it real? USA: Servant Pubns, 1992.

Valerie Sinason, ed., Treating Survivors of Satanist Abuse. London: Routledge, 1994.

Joachim Schmidt, Satanismus: Mythos und Wirklichkeit. Marburg: Diagonal Verlag, 1992.

Hilton Sutton, Familiar Spirits, Witchcraft and Satanism. USA: Harrison House Pub, 1989.

Jeffry S. Victor. Satanic Panic: the Creation of a Contemporary Legend. USA: Open Court Press, 1992. [Response to the accusations about Satanic ritual abuse.]


[1] As the Internet is constantly changing and revised, "hyperlinks" (references to specific directories and files on computer servers) quickly can become outdated. All links refered to in this article, however, were checked as of November 1995 as operational. Links no longer in operation are indicated as "dead links". Some (as on the server can still be accessed by ftp.
[2 There are, of course, numerous other Satanic groups and organizations, but many of them are related in some way or other to these two "Mother Churches." A list of Satanic Cults organized in the United States can be found at dossier/UScults.html along with numerous other pagan and occult groups. Other short-lived spinoffs include The Church of Satanic Brotherhood, Ordo Templi Satanas, Order of the Black Ram, the Church of Lucifer, Thee Orthodox Satanic Church, etc.
[3] Material regarding the history and practices of the Church of Satan can be found in The Secret Life of a Satanist (Feral House 1990) and The Church of Satan (Hell's Kitchen Productions n.d.) by Blanche Barton, personal secretary to LaVey and an administrator of the Church of Satan.
[4] Avon Books 1969; Avon Books 1972; Feral House Books 1989.
[5] The text is taken from U.S. Army pamphlet no. 165-13 entitled "Religious Requirements and Practices of Certain Selected Groups," Headquarters, Department of the Army, April 1978. The file can be found at (dead link).
[6] (dead link).
[7] (dead link).
[8] (dead link).
[9] (dead link).
[10] (dead link).
[11] The above pertains to the definition of so-called "Greater Magic," whereas "Lesser Magic" is basically the daily manipulation of other humans to obtain one's desires. Detailed techniques can be found in LaVey's book, The Satanic Whitch, op.cit.
[12] (dead link).
[13] (dead link).l
[14] (dead link).
[15] (dead link). Other important holidays are the solstices in June and December, the equinoxes in March and September. Satanic revels are usually held five to six weeks after each equinox and solstice.
[16] (dead link).
[17] For introductory statements about the nature of those groups, cf. html-pages faq032, faq033 and faq034 on (dead links).
[18] Cf.
[19] According to Peter Gilmore, the number of persons who disassociated themselves from LaVey were about thirty, cf. (dead link)
[20] It was considered a disaster when LaVey announced (1975) that the Satanic Priesthood and all higher initiatory degrees in the Church would be available in return for cash contributions. The reason why this was done, according to LaVey, was that the status of Church members should reflect their standing in the world outside of the organization, and not only reflect simple book learning and esoteric knowledge.
[21] The mandate for the new Temple can be found in The Book of Coming Forth by Night. Excerpts can be found on the discussion list Alt.Satanism under the title, "N Solstice" where the authenticity of the excerpts have been hotly debated.
[22] Current link: . The current (Oct 2001) info address of the Xepera-L mailing list is .
[23] Some Church of Satan grottos and groups represented on the Internet are to be found on (dead link). Among them were: The Infernal Garrison (iggreet.html and iglaws.html), Grotto ODM (Oderint Dum Metuant) (odm.html), the Order of the Evil Eye (oeeinfo.html, oeeparts.html and oeestand.html) and the Grotto of the Wolf – the only Grotto that existed only on the internet ( (dead link). There were many other groups that sympathized with the Church of Satan, but preferred to stay independent.
[24] . According to Statistic Canada, a 1991 census found 335 Canadians who identified themselves as Satanists. The actual number is probably higher, cf. (dead link).
[25] (dead link).Current link as in fn #22.  "Setnakt," a priest of the Temple of Set, has a somewhat different view: "Although the majority of the Temple has come to believe in the existence of this entity [Set], such belief is not required of a member. Set is regarded as the best model of initiation -- a vast powerful but finite being." religion/satanism/ToS/Setnakt.gz
[26] Entries to a variety of sources that deal with of Satanic ritual abuse could in 1995 be found on Cf. also:;; ; (some are dead links).
Current information on Satanic ritual abuse can be found on
[27] (dead link).
[28] Black Magic is explained as "a refined understanding within which one develops the skills AND the power to control the influences which may directly affect his/her existence, the power to sense one's own relationship to those influences, and the balance necessary to create delicate changes – altering the swing of the pendulum – in one's favor." Cf.
[32] This is the only Order to which all initiates can belong. The Order has been accused of promoting Nazi occultism and will be further discussed below.
[33] For an introduction to these orders cf. (Leviathans), the Order of Shuti , and -/ ToS/vamp.set (Vampyres). The latter file included a liturgy for the Black Mass. An explanation of these orders' purposes can also be found in
[34] (-/tsrl24)
[36] In addition to the already mentioned netcom (USA) and lysator (Sweden) servers, two other sites were (Finland) and (USA) (dead links). ToS documents are sometimes made available to researchers.
[37] Cf. Peter Gilmore, "Pretenders to the Throne: Regarding the Temple of Set" at http://www. (dead link).
[38] According to The Book of Coming Forth by Night, on alt.satanism, aug. 1994.
[39] "What is Satanism?" by Azazel of the "Illuminati of Satan," a sub-group of the CoS, cf. (dead link).
[40] (dead link).
[41] (dead link).
[42] Ibid.
[43] (dead link).
[44] (the same file is also listed in the same directory under the name nazism.gz
[45] This is the reason why Aquino participated in a Black Magical ritual at Wewelsburg Castle in Germany on Oct. 19, 1983. The occasion was the reconstitution of the Order of the Trapezoid as a functioning Order under the authority of the ToS. That this very place was chosen, does not, however, imply that Aquino thereby embraced the political and social goals of Nazi ideology.
[46] . This file is a reprint from The Crystal Tablet of Set, "Order of the Trapezoid – Statement" an was released on the Internet by permission from ToS.
[47] One might object, of course, that it is very hard to speak about a moral code among Satanists (at least CoS adherents) when this code is reduced to its bare minimum: "Do whatever you want to do." What kind of restraints is built into this code that might prevent a Satanist to become a Nazi collaborator or fascist propagator? The answer is obvious and can be found expressed repeatedly in alt.satanism discussions: the only restraint is the fear of being punished (put to jail or beaten up) or that there is no need to interfere (they don't have anything I want). Hurting is simply a waste of time; only when there is a good reason are Satanists allowed by their moral code to hurt somebody. But then, to a non-Satanist, the question is what is worse, fascism or Satanism? Is there any reason to choose any alternative if one knows that is not going to be any "fair play" in either case?
[49] The magazine came out with 11 issues from January 1990 until April 1992 when it joined with another Satanist journal in New Zealand, The Heretic . All published issues can be found as e-text at the lysator site mentioned above as files watch01.gz - watch11.g

Some current links (August 2001)